Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/handle/ntb/40961
Title: Чинники формування оборонних споруд монастирів Західної України у XVII–XVIII ст.
Other Titles: Defensive monasteries of western ukraine (XVII–XVIII centuries). Factors influencing their formation
Authors: Рибчинський, О. В.
Хохонь, М. П.
Affiliation: Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Рибчинський О. В. Чинники формування оборонних споруд монастирів Західної України у XVII–XVIII ст. / О. В. Рибчинський, М. П. Хохонь // Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". Серія: Архітектура. – 2016. – № 856. – С. 199–204. – Бібліографія: 18 назв.
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Видавництво Львівської політехніки
Country (code): UA
Place of the edition/event: Львів
UDC: 726.3(477.4)
Keywords: чинники
оборонні монастирі
регулярні та нерегулярні укріплення
розвинені укріплення
factor of defensive monastery
regular and irregular fortifications developed fortifications
developed fortifications
Number of pages: 199–204
Abstract: Опрацьовано чинники, що впливали на розвиток та формування укріплень монастирів у XVII–XVIII ст. Монастирі та їхні захисні редути завжди відігравали роль активних домінант у просторі. Проте з плином часу сформований архітектурний образ руйнується. Фахове вивчення цієї проблематики розкриває раніше не відомі аспекти існування та окреслює перспективи функціонування монастирських комплексів. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries monastic complexes had reliable fortifications, which were developed according to the newest requisites of the times. Most of the monasteries lost their ecclesiastical, religional, scientifical, cultural, and artistic roles during the twentieth century; this became the reason of their decline and gradual decay. Today, many monasteries gradually restore their original roles of spiritual havens. However, the fortifications which are essential parts of their architectural image are not protected and are in decay. In this article we present monasteries of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which were founded both inside city walls and included in the city fortification systems, and outside cities and constructed on highlands or lowlands. As a result of the analysis it was possible do discern that the monasteries located on plains or lowlands had regular fortifications, while the ones on highlands had irregular fortifications. In some monastic complexes due to development of architectural and engineering thought, and also due to political and administrative factors, developed fortification systems arose. Correctly chosen location for a monastery was a helpful factor for defence. Hills, rivers, and swampy territories were natural defensive elements. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries three categories of monastic complexes evolved: 1) monasteries on highlands, 2) monasteries on plains, 3) monasteries on lowlands. Monasteries on highlands were the most common. Such complexes are present in Pidkamin, Pochaiv, Yazlivets, Berezhany, Lviv (Discalced Carmelites, Benedictine Nuns, Missionaries, Reformats Orders), Monastyrok. Monasteries on plain territories had regular layout and were located inside city walls (in Bohorodchany, Variazh, Husiatyn, Zhovkva, Zbarazh, Leshniv, Rohatyn, Sambir (both Bernardine and Dominican). The least common were the ones located on lowlands. Among these are the abodes in Yezupil, Mariampil, Lviv (Bernardine), Terebovlia, Univ, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Maniava, the ones in Chernyliawa and Shchyplotiv do not exist today. As a rule, monasteries were located near main roads: either inside or outside city walls. Among the complexes located outside of the urban structures, and near local roads, are the ones in Dobromyl, Zavaliv, Lviv (Benedictine Nuns, Reformats), the Maniavskyi Skyt, Vitsyn, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Sokal (Bernardine). Among the monasteries located near the main road inside city walls or right next to city fortifications, are the abodes in Berezhany, Belz, Bohorodchany, Zhovkva (Dominican), Zbarazh, Leshniv, Mariampil, Rohatyn, Lviv (Bernardine). Such monasteries were included in the city fortification systems and were located next to the city gates. Monastic complexes located near main roads next to the city walls, usually played the role of outposts, so they had to be placed on hills. These are Pidkamin monastery, Pochaiv, Peremyshliany, Yazlivets, Lviv (Basilian, Carmelite), Sambir (Jesuit, Bridgettine), and Sokal (Bridgettine). During the history, the monasteries played an active and important role in the spread of the Holy Scripture, in the development of education, and in the defence of the borders of the state. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries monasteries on plains were founded inside city walls and were included into the cities’ defensive systems. Monasteries outside city limits were constructed on hills or on lowlands. Monasteries located on plain territories or on lowlands, had regular fortification systems. The ones on hills got irregular fortifications that depended much on the present landscape. Monasteries with developed fortifications were extraordinary; they had significant political and administrative factors influence them, as well as the architectural and engineering achievements of the time.
URI: http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/handle/ntb/40961
Copyright owner: © Рибчинський О. В., Хохонь М. П., 2016
References (Ukraine): 1. Центральний державний історичний архів України у Львові (ЦДІАУЛ), Кадастрова карта Підкаменя 1844 р. ф. 186, оп. 6, спр. 912. 2. Центральний державний історичний архів України у Львові (ЦДІАУЛ), Кадастрова карта Сокаля 1854 р. ф. 186, оп. 6, спр. 1683. 3. Науково-технічний архів Інституту “Укрзахідпроектреставрація”. Пам. архіт. XVII–XVIIІ cт. монастир Домініканів в с. Підкамінь Львівської області. Обмірні креслення. Архітектурні обміри, 1975 р. 4. Науково- технічний архів Інституту “Укрзахідпроектреставрація”. Пам. арх. XVII cт. костьол Бернардинів з келіями м. Львів, пл. Воз’єднання. Обмірні креслення. – Т. IV. – Львів, 1973. 5. Берест Р. Дослідження монастиря в селищі Підкамінь на Львівщині / Р. Берест // Матеріали і дослідження з археології Прикарпаття і Волині. – Львів: Ін-т українознавства ім. І. Крип’якевича НАН України, Correctly chosen location for a monastery was a helpful factor for defence. Hills, rivers, and swampy territories were natural defensive elements. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries three categories of monastic complexes evolved: 1) monasteries on highlands, 2) monasteries on plains, 3) monasteries on lowlands. Monasteries on highlands were the most common. Such complexes are present in Pidkamin, Pochaiv, Yazlivets, Berezhany, Lviv (Discalced Carmelites, Benedictine Nuns, Missionaries, Reformats Orders), Monastyrok. Monasteries on plain territories had regular layout and were located inside city walls (in Bohorodchany, Variazh, Husiatyn, Zhovkva, Zbarazh, Leshniv, Rohatyn, Sambir (both Bernardine and Dominican). The least common were the ones located on lowlands. Among these are the abodes in Yezupil, Mariampil, Lviv (Bernardine), Terebovlia, Univ, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Maniava, the ones in Chernyliawa and Shchyplotiv do not exist today. As a rule, monasteries were located near main roads: either inside or outside city walls. Among the complexes located outside of the urban structures, and near local roads, are the ones in Dobromyl, Zavaliv, Lviv (Benedictine Nuns, Reformats), the Maniavskyi Skyt, Vitsyn, Lavriv, Krekhiv, Sokal (Bernardine). Among the monasteries located near the main road inside city walls or right next to city fortifications, are the abodes in Berezhany, Belz, Bohorodchany, Zhovkva (Dominican), Zbarazh, Leshniv, Mariampil, Rohatyn, Lviv (Bernardine). Such monasteries were included in the city fortification systems and were located next to the city gates. Monastic complexes located near main roads next to the city walls, usually played the role of outposts, so they had to be placed on hills. These are Pidkamin monastery, Pochaiv, Peremyshliany, Yazlivets, Lviv (Basilian, Carmelite), Sambir (Jesuit, Bridgettine), and Sokal (Bridgettine). During the history, the monasteries played an active and important role in the spread of the Holy Scripture, in the development of education, and in the defence of the borders of the state. In seventeenth and eighteenth centuries monasteries on plains were founded inside city walls and were included into the cities’ defensive systems. Monasteries outside city limits were constructed on hills or on lowlands. Monasteries located on plain territories or on lowlands, had regular fortification systems. The ones on hills got irregular fortifications that depended much on the present landscape. Monasteries with developed fortifications were extraordinary; they had significant political and administrative factors influence them, as well as the architectural and engineering achievements of the time.
Content type: Article
Appears in Collections:Архітектура. – 2016. – №856

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