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Title: Неокласицизм в архітектурі Італії міжвоєнного часу: естетика "Ritorno all'ordine" і рух "Novecento Іtaliano"
Other Titles: Neoclassicism in Italian architecture of interwar period: the aesthetics of “Ritorno all’ordine” and “Novecento Іtaliano” movement
Authors: Лінда, С. М.
Affiliation: Національний університет “Львівська політехніка”
Bibliographic description (Ukraine): Лінда С. М.. Неокласицизм в архітектурі Італії міжвоєнного часу: естетика "Ritorno all'ordine" і рух "Novecento italiano" / C. М. Лінда // Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". Серія: Архітектура. – 2016. – № 856. – С. 3–15. – Бібліографія: 33 назви.
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Видавництво Львівської політехніки
Country (code): UA
Place of the edition/event: Львів
UDC: 72.01(03)
Keywords: архітектура
“Novecento Italiano”
“Novecento Italiano”
Number of pages: 3–15
Abstract: Сформовано та розвинено неокласичну традицію в архітектурі Італії у міжвоєнний період на прикладі руху “Novecento Italiano” у Мілані. Показано ідеологічні передумови формування естетики руху, найважливіші представники та програмні реалізації. The peculiarity of the political life in Italy of interwar period was that Italy was the first country in Europe where totalitarian regime was established. According to that, neoclassicism in its Italian version was one of the first examples of their own interpretation of the classical heritage in the ideological context. The difficult economic situation, the weakness of the liberal government in Italy after World War I led to the rapidly growing popularity of far-right political forces that led to the rise to power of the Fascist party led by B. Mussolini in 1922. Fascists linked the idea of creating a new state with the nationalist idea of “Greater Italy”, renewal of which was only possible through strong, purposeful people. Because B.Mussolini almost never spoke about what should be fascist art and architecture, artists began to seek the starting point for the establishment of fascist aesthetics in the formulations that were in party programs and numerous speeches. The official propaganda accents were made on the old national myths about the revival of the nation, the “Third Rome” and the grandeur of the Italian empire. The statement єreturn to orderє – to “ritorno all'ordine” – became the basis for the implementation of the myths.That is why, the classical heritage of the Ancient Rome became a very important source for architects to create a new fascist architecture. On the wave of calls for a new order, based on the classical heritage, an artistic movement “Novecento Italiano” was formed in Milan in 1922. It also included architects. Italian architects “Novechento” launched extremely active and productive construction work. One of the first buildings that announced the arrival of a new style, was “Ca 'Brutta”, which was built in 1919–1922 by Giovanni Mucio. Researchers believe this building is not only the first vivid representation of “Novecento Italiano” in architecture, but the starting point for the development of Italian rationalism and for the style “Littorio”, which was formed in Rome in the late 1920s. Apart from Giovanni Muzio, prominent architects of the Milanese neoclassicism of interwar period included Pietro Portaluppi and Paolo Mezzanotte, who designed and built buildings, which powerfully shaped the architectural image of the interwar Milan. Designed by the architect most closely associated with fascism, Marcello Piacentini, the Palace of Justice was the largest building constructed in Milan in the interwar period. Its architectural forms represented a new stage in the development of fascist architecture – style Littorio. Lombard neoclassical architects were among the first ones in interwar Italy who turned to the classical heritage as a source of modern style searches, demonstrating the possibility of expressing the urgent ideological task by the architectural forms of the past. Modernity was not opposed to classical culture, it was the only means of modern interpretation of archetypes. Their creative search showed a plurality from downright historical citations to elegant schemes, abstract geometry of which only referred to the original sources.
Copyright owner: © Лінда С. М., 2016
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Content type: Article
Appears in Collections:Архітектура. – 2016. – №856

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