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Назва: Залізничні вокзали як частина архітектурної ідентичності краю
Автори: Рочняк, Юрій
Бібліографічний опис: Рочняк Ю. Залізничні вокзали як частина архітектурної ідентичності краю / Юрій Рочняк // Historical and Cultural Studies. – 2015. – Volume 2, number 1. – P. 83–91. – Бібліографія: 18 назв.
Дата публікації: 2015
Видавництво: Publishing House of Lviv Polytechnic National University
Теми: залізничний вокзал
архітектурна ідентичність
прототип
образ
композиційно-стилістичний тип
railway station buildings
the architectural identity
prototype
image
composition and stylistic type
Короткий огляд (реферат): Залізничні вокзали, маючи первинно за прототип палацові, житлові та інші будівлі, утворили самостійну групу громадських будинків, яка стала впливати зворотно на образ поселень. Вокзали стали частиною архітектурного образу країв, утворюючи їхню ідентичність. Простежено формування композиційно-стилістичних типів будинків вокзалів, їхнє розташування в Галичині, Буковині та Закарпатті та встановлено способи їхньої локалізації. Окреслюються основні тенденції сучасного стану та використання вокзалів і пасажирських споруд, беручи до уваги процеси в країнах високого розвитку. The railway station buildings are regarded in accordance with other buildings in the process of creating the architectural identity of historical lands. The formation of compositional and stylistic types of railway station buildings, their location in Galicia (Halytchyna), Bukovina (Bukovyna) and Transcarpathia (Zakarpattia) is tracked, and the ways of their localization are identified. The main focus is on small railway station buildings. The tendencies of modern state and utilization of the railway station buildings are defined considering the processes of highly developed countries. The palaces, the theatres, and the residential buildings were the prototypes of railways station buildings. It is possible to follow how a general composition of three mighty connected blocks of the palace Nymfenburg in Munich became a model of public buildings and railway station buildings in Bavaria (Schliersee). Big railway stations were constructed following the architectural techniques of other public buildings, i.e. the dome over the ticket hall of the main railway station building reminds the dome of the Music and Drama Theatre (Chernivtsi); the dome of the main railway station building is similar to the Opera and Ballet Theatre (Lviv). The stations of “the lower level” were built on the basis of smaller sample – a villa or a village house. With time, a certain type of railway station building was developed, that was used in construction of other public buildings. We can observe a reverse influence on other types of public architecture – the shops in Dilatyn, Yaremche, Sokal, that have a similar composition of a typical 1950th railway station buildings. The railways used to belong to different companies, then they were nationalized, in the interwar period they were divided between different countries, and after the war they became a property of only one country. Diverse and imaginary appearance is the reflection of other factors. The compositional and stylistic types of the railway station buildings as typically constructed buildings were formed according to spatial and visual features. A number of railways station buildings were constructed under one projects, they have similar features, and techniques applied. Among them: the oldest Round-arc type (stations: Stare Selo, Kolomyia, Zabolotiv, Vadul-Siret), one, that is only on the line Lviv/Lemberg – Chernivtsi/Czernowitz – Suchava/Suceava – Botoshany/Botoşani (architect L. Wierzbicki), Mostyska type (stations: Mshana, Sudova Vyshnia, Mostyska-I), Sambir type (stations: Komarno, Rudky, Staryi Sambir, Strilky), Podilla type (stations: Vyhnanka, Bila-Tchortkivska, Yahilnytsia, Tovste, Borshtchiv, Ivane-Puste in Galicia and stations: Stefanesti/Stefăneşti, Verenchanka, Vyzhnytsia/Wiżnitz in Bukovina), Rava type (stations: Dobrosyn, Hlynske, Kulykiv, Lypnyk, Zashkiv), Rustic-roof type (stations: Hlibovychi, Hrebeniv, Kopytchyntsi, Mykulytchyn, Rohatyn, Sykhiv, Terebovlia, Tukhla, Turka, Vorokhta, Yasenytsia, Zhydatchiv in Galicia and station Nepolokivtsi in Bukovina etc.). These compositional and stylistic types of railway station buildings have point, linear and zonal location. There are unique railway station buildings from different periods. The railway station buildings are relevant to all periods of overall architectural development of the respective countries, they reflect the needs, possibilities, understanding and preferences of their time. It makes them an important factor of architectural identity. We distinguish the main vectors in development of modern railway station buildings: 1) construction of large railway complexes that apart from the primary passenger-transporting functions, implements the needs of communication, business, trade, service and leisure, transforming themselves into a powerful urban center; 2) simple, functioning, universal and powerful small-size passenger buildings on the boarding platforms of each station or stop. The global tendencies of development, professional understanding and actions are aimed at preserving, supporting and creating new approaches to architecture of railway station buildings and, after all, at the development of identities of settlements and countries.
URI (Уніфікований ідентифікатор ресурсу): http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/handle/ntb/32846
Тип вмісту : Article
Розташовується у зібраннях:Historical And Cultural Studies. – 2015. – Vol. 2, No. 1

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